F.E. Vasilyuk (1984), developing the concepts of stress, frustration, conflict and crisis, substantiates four categorical fields corresponding to vital worlds - vitality (see below), activity, consciousness and will. In our opinion, it is convenient to refer resources to coping with extreme situations to these categorical fields. Accordingly, it is possible to divide and techniques, often used in the process of rehabilitation and psychotherapy - depending on whether they are directed at maintaining what coping resources. To support vitality - interest, desire, activity - many techniques of bodily psychotherapy (for example, ES Mazur, 2003), focus technique (Yu. Jendlin, 2000) are directed. Their main goal is to awaken in a person the desire to live, to cope with the situation, then to rely on this desire, interest in working with psycho-traumatic experiences. Reliance on rehabilitation activities implies an emphasis on a person’s activity in overcoming difficulties, on his desire to act and win. "Try to do it" - this technique is often used not only in behavioral psychotherapy, but also in cognitive, art therapy, physical therapy, Gestalt therapy. Finally, consciousness includes an understanding of how and why I act in a given situation, the choice, the coordination of conflicting motives. To this categorical field are some techniques of psychoanalysis, existential psychotherapy, humanistic psychotherapy. Work in this field is an attempt to realize that emotion, affect, guilt, and experience are some phenomenon that have their own causes and consequences. Then they cease to cover everything around (for example, the phenomenon of "invasion" of memories, guilt, fear), and further rehabilitation or psychotherapeutic work is possible. As an illustration, we can recall the widespread technique of situational reconstruction (for example, S. Maddi, 1997, 1998) - the event is considered in an extended perspective, its causes and possible consequences are examined and analyzed, which leads to a reassessment of the threat and negativity of the event itself, its role in life person in general.
The search for psychological resources and reliance on these resources, as a rule, is a key point both in self-regulation (see below) and in rehabilitation in extreme conditions. If a person is convinced of his own power to control what is happening, he is ready to act actively and overcome difficulties and these beliefs remained unshakable in extreme conditions - he has enough to rely on these psychological resources. If, however (much more often) this is not the case, a painstaking search of psychological resources is needed that will restore and maintain confidence and self-control. There is, however, a second version of self-regulation - with reliance not on psychological resources, but through actual existence. The person assumes his responsibility for what is happening and what will happen - and the relationship of the motivational and the semantic sphere of the individual - self-regulation is drawn. Acting in extreme conditions, contrary to experience, the person changes, forms his own beliefs and dispositions.
VITALISM (Latin vitalis - alive, vital) - the current in biology, defending the presence of representatives of the living world of special non-material factors that determine the specificity of this world and its qualitative difference from inanimate. Vitalism originates from ancient animism. Elements of vitalism were contained in the philosophical teachings of Plato about the immortal soul, in Aristotle s thought about the existence of special internal causes in living organisms. The most complete system of vitalism was expounded by the German embryologist H. Driesch (late 19th - early 20th centuries). The methodological basis of his vitalism was the "machine theory of life." From the standpoint of the latter, it was difficult to explain the revealed facts of the regulation of development processes, the ability of individual cells to develop to a full-fledged organism, regeneration phenomena, etc., at the earliest stages of dividing the fertilized egg cell. Mechanistic ideas about the nature of cell divisions and the interconnection of cells in a multicellular organism did not allow us to explain the essence of regeneration processes and the regulatory nature of development processes. These processes were, according to Drisha, the essence of the phenomena of life. But this essence is determined, according to Drisha, so-called. "Entelechy," a factor "comprising a goal." This factor, being immaterial and acting outside space and time, creates a spatial organization of the living, determines its expediency. The existence of living non-material and unknowable factors that determine its qualitative difference from inanimate, recognized and other representatives of vitalism. (I. Reinke, R. Franset, and others). Vitalism is characterized by the absolutization of the qualitative individuality of the living, the denial of the role of the chemical and physical laws in it, the negative attitude to those biological theories and concepts that give a materialistic explanation for the phenomena of life. For example, Drish actively opposed the evolutionary theory of Darwin, the concept of heredity G. Mendel.
Vital needs are needs conditioned by biological origin.
Vitality I - (Vitality "I") a kind of self-awareness: the consciousness of the psychophysical unity of one’s self.
EMOTIONAL REGULATION - spontaneous and deliberate use of various methods and technologies by a person, helping to normalize or adjust your emotional state in the right way.