Автор: Н.И. Козлов

Psychotherapy

Фильм "Путь к себе"

Врачи нередко считают психотерапевтов, не имеющих медицинского образования - шарлатанами.
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Psychotherapy is easy to learn, psychotherapy is not easy to determine. Most often, clients come to psychotherapists with problems, come when they are ill. As customer problems cause them inconvenience and suffering, the main and natural task of the therapist is treatment, alleviation of suffering. In a narrow and precise sense, psychotherapy is the treatment of mental disorders by psychological means (as opposed to medical, biological or social). However, today the concept of psychotherapy is increasingly expanding, going beyond the framework of treatment alone and, in effect, closing in with the concept of psychological help.

The two main forms of modern psychotherapy are clinical (medical) and psychological assistance, clinical and psychological psychotherapy. We can say that these are two completely different areas of activity, united by a common name: "psychotherapy". Medical and psychological care have different standards and require different training.

Within the framework of medical standards, assistance is provided to the patient, the patient, as directed by the doctor. Obligation of the patient to visit a doctor, undergo a survey and perform the procedures prescribed to him. If the patient has performed the prescribed procedures, the doctor is responsible for the results of the treatment.

Strictly within the standards of medical care, clinical psychotherapy works. As a medical specialty, it works within the framework of the concepts "patient", "diagnostics", "clinic", "nosology", "pathology mechanisms", "treatment", "efficiency", "prognosis", further "medical history", "legal responsibility for the patient ", etc.

The standards of psychological care are different, more democratic and less directive. There are no obligatory directions and instructions here, as there is no "physician-patient relationship". There is a "client" here, a free person who can ask the therapist for help, with a request for patronage, and stop talking to the therapist when he deems it necessary. The client’s position is active: "I decide whether I need psychotherapy-or not, what should I do, and what does not suit me," but in this case, the responsibility for the results of psychotherapy is the same on both the therapist and the client. Relations - on an equal footing.

Within the framework of medical standards, the doctor’s task is to save the person from suffering. If the doctor starts doing something else, he is no longer a doctor. Standards of psychological care allow the therapist to engage in any help topics, for example, improving the client’s family relationships or his personal growth. Modern psychotherapy is not limited to treatment, its tasks are much broader.

Clinical psychotherapy can only be dealt with by a doctor with a medical background. A specialist who practices psychological psychotherapy must have a psychological education.

The dispute between clinical and psychological psychotherapy has long been and is still relevant. The opinion of doctors: "Psychotherapy, in which the therapist does not have medical education - is inadmissible." Only specialists with clinical training can practice psychotherapy, all the rest are charlatans. " The opinion of psychotherapists with psychological education is different, they believe that many clients can solve their problems quite professionally.

Here, in Psychologos, under psychotherapy, we mean psychological rather than clinical psychotherapy.

More often within the framework of practical psychology, work with problems is called easier - therapy, and the therapist is simply a therapist.

Psychotherapy is needed for clients, whose mental, mental and bodily condition makes it unrealistic to have a normal psychological counseling. It can be clients in a state of passion or easily falling into it, clients with serious dependence or depression, clients with tough problematic beliefs, especially with the installation of «I’m right - everyone else is wrong and guilty." Often these are those who do not want to leave the position of Victim, clients with unconscious but serious benefits in their neurosis. Strong bodily clamps or low intelligence - here. And also - a variety of bad habits or severe neurotic reactions that make a person of a low-social and exclude normal work in a psychological group.

Types of psychotherapy

At least 450 approaches are known in psychotherapy, more than half of which are used in work with children and adolescents. The unified systematization of such a wide and expanding list is almost unrealistic, and the classification of types of psychotherapy varies considerably from author to author. Nevertheless, the field of psychotherapy can be represented quite reasonably if one knows the main directions in psychotherapy and basic approaches. This allows any specific psychotherapeutic school (Gestalt approach, NLP, transactional analysis or psychosynthesis) to be attributed to a particular branch, direction and approach, respectively, to know the possibilities and limitations of this approach, what tasks it solves, what does not, and to whom it can be shown .

You can list a variety of approaches (schools) in psychotherapy, not correlating them with either the main directions, or with the basic approaches. Just a list, see →

Psychotherapy with young children has its own specifics, like working with teenagers and elderly people. There is a specificity in the psychotherapeutic work with women and men, when working with victims of terrorist attacks and disasters, in dealing with alcoholics and dependent people. Which one? See →

Most types of psychotherapy are correlated with three main areas: psychodynamic direction, cognitive-behavioral and humanitarian direction. See →

Methods of work distinguish between medical, psychological and humanitarian psychotherapy.

Methodology of psychotherapy

The method of psychotherapy includes the choice of the form of work (short-term or long-term, group or individual), the direction of work, the selection of methods, the implementation of psycho-technical actions and control effects. See →

Psychotherapy in human life

Who needs psychotherapy and when? What are the needs of modern psychotherapy? What is a sick psychotherapy? Today, psychotherapy is not only a cure, but also a business. How? See →

Literature on psychotherapy on the Internet

• Psychotherapy - what is it? Contemporary representations. Compilers Jeffrey K. Zeig V. Michael Muenion

• How to choose a psychologist for psychotherapy?

• This site gathers materials on the philosophical problems of psychotherapy, norm and pathology in society and our daily lives. See →

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