Автор: Н.И. Козлов

The pedagogical system of A.S. Makarenko

The pedagogical system of A.S. Makarenko

Makarenko is a brilliant teacher. Evidence of the international recognition of A.S. Makarenko was the well-known decision of UNESCO (1988), concerning only four teachers who determined the way of pedagogical thinking in the twentieth century. These are John Dewey, Georg Kershensteiner, Maria Montessori and Anton Makarenko.

A.S. Makarenko is known for organizing and leading the colonies for juvenile offenders and street children. Makarenko was visited by children who had already been so spoiled that they could not live in a normal society: thieves, hooligans, prostitute girls. Parents brought their children when they themselves could not cope with them. And Makarenko could. He achieved such skill in the upbringing of children, which he could confidently say: "Parenting is an easy thing." So it became easy for Makarenko, that in the colony of him. Dzerzhinsky, he completely abandoned the caregivers, and his care was 600 former offenders. There were teachers in the school, engineers in the factory, but the children s group of 500-600 people lived to a certain extent independently. Makarenko was sure that the children, on their own signal, would get out of bed on time and put all the premises of the commune in order. There were never any cleaners in the commune. Pupils cleaned everything themselves, moreover, so that everything should shine, because in the commune came on 3-4 delegations a day. Cleanliness was checked with a white handkerchief.

Today, in our days, according to the Prosecutor General s Office, only 10% of graduates of Russian state orphanages and boarding schools are adapting to life, 40% commit crimes, another 40% of graduates become alcoholics and drug addicts, 10% commit suicide.

From the report of the chairman of the Committee for the Protection of the Rights of Inmates of orphanages and boarding schools in Moscow, V. Sh. Semenov, at the Academy of Labour and Social Relations of 1 July, 1999. A few years later (or more accurately) The General Prosecutor’s Office of Russia conducted a study ... how the fate of the graduates of orphanages was formed. Statistics was shocking. Forty per cent almost immediately went to jail, another forty went to crime, ten per cent committed suicide and only one-tenth managed to get into life, find a normal job, start a family. " The same figures were repeatedly cited in their speeches by State Duma deputy from the Communist Party Smolin O.N.

For comparison, we recall that among almost 3000 pupils of collectives under the hands. A. S. Makarenko no known relapse, and many researchers of the fate of these graduates noted that "they were happy people." Close achievements were achieved by the pupils and continuers of the approaches of A.S. Makarenko Semyon Kalabalin and his wife Galina Konstantinovna (only the collectives under their leadership released about 7000 people), A. Yavlinsky and others.

With all his pedagogical successes A.S. Makarenko was not recognized by the official pedagogy of that time, one of his ardent opponents was N.K. Krupskaya. Despite the fact that they could not cope with homelessness, in 1928 Makarenko’s method was banned for use. The resolution sounded like a verdict: "The proposed system of the educational process is a system not Soviet." The colony was defended with the help of Maxim Gorky, who came to a meeting with the inmates of the colony. Gorky’s comment on the colony and Makarenko: "He is harsh in appearance, short-sighted, with a big nose, with intelligent and keen eyes." Looks like a military man. "Everywhere he keeps pace, sees everything, knows each of the colonists who produce a strange impression of the well-bred." It was Maxim Gorky, using his influence among the leadership of the OGPU, saved Makarenko, making him a staff member of the GPU and giving him to a new colony. The new commune has received virtually nothing from the state during its existence. The commune was helped by the Chekists, giving part of their salary, but this was only enough for half the needs. In the early years, the commune was in great need. There were times when one day ate one bread. But already in years the commune refused from the help of the Chekists, and began to build its own power tools factory, the first in the country, with its own money.

How all this was achieved by A.S. Makarenko? Outlining his credo, among the most important point Anton Semenovich insisted on the development of technologies of educational impact. He wrote:

"Our pedagogical production was never built on technological logic, but always according to the logic of moral preaching, and the more I thought, the more I found similarities between the processes of upbringing and the ordinary processes in material production, and no particularly terrible mechanisticity in this similarity. The human person in my view continued to be a human person with all its complexity, wealth and beauty, but it seemed to me that it was precisely for this reason that it had to be approached with more precise measures Not only did it not offend my understanding of man, but, on the contrary, infected me with special respect for him, because one can not treat without respect and to a good complex machine.

In any case it was clear to me that so many details in the human personality and in human behavior could be made on the press, simply stamped in the standard order, but this requires delicate work themselves die, requiring meticulous care and precision. Other details required, on the contrary, individual handling in the hands of a highly skilled craftsman, a man with golden hands and a sharp eye. For many details, it was necessary to have complex special adaptations requiring great ingenuity and flight of human genius. And for all the details and for the entire work of the educator, a special science is needed. Why do we study the resistance of materials in technical universities, and in pedagogical universities we do not study the resistance of the person when it is brought up? But it’s not a secret for everyone that such resistance takes place. Why, finally, we do not have a control department that could tell different pedagogical partches: "You, daughters, have ninety percent of the marriage." You did not have a communist personality, but a direct rubbish, a drunkard, a sluggard and a self-seeker. "Pay, from your salary. " "Why do not we have any science of raw materials, and no one really knows what this material should be - a box of matches or an airplane?"

In addition to being technologically sound, we would have included four points to the most important points of the Makarenko’s pedagogical system: Business. The Core of the Collective. Self-management. Format.

Business. The colonists had a real business that fed them and disciplined them. In the beginning, the colonists settled their subsistence economy just to feed themselves, later engaged in serious production. Working their plant (less than a year), the pupils began to produce electric drills, later mastered the production of cameras, "Leica." The camera "Leica" - this is 300 parts accurate to 0.001 mm, for those times this is an absolutely innovative production. The production in the commune was not just profitable, but highly profitable: the commune gave the state as its own profit 4.5 million rubles a year. The pupils received a salary, which they kept themselves, the junior members of the commune, paid scholarships to former communards who studied at universities, put money on savings accounts for the accumulation of funds by the time at the exit from the commune, contained an orchestra, a theatre, a greenhouse of flowers, organized hikes and other cultural events. And the main reason is that the case formed the personality: in 16 - 19 years, children already became masters and chiefs of production.

The core of the collective. Colonists were brought up not by the educator in the mode of manual control, but by the core of the collective in the automatic mode. Authoritative colonists, internally accepting and professing the values ​​of the colony, as the core of the collective - performed the role of "starter", which permeated the newly arrived colonists, turned out to be the meat grinder that grinded the newcomers and made them part of the system. Children brought to each other new rules of life in their own language, Makarenko only restrained them, so that they remained in a civilized framework.

"If it is a difficult man who does not believe me, is against me, distrustful of me, I will not talk to him." I will gather the elders, call him, and in the most official, affable tone, I will talk with him. It’s important not what I’m saying, but how others are looking at him. He looks up at me, and is afraid to look at his comrades, I say: "And then the comrades will tell you." And the comrades will tell him what I taught them before, and he will imagine that they themselves came up with this. ("Problems of Soviet school education").

The same movement when the young received protection from the older "sidekicks", and the sidekicks inserted new concepts for them in life.

Self-management: If there is no cause and there is no healthy core of the collective, self-government is impossible and harmful. If the foundation of the collective is healthy, and improves, becoming a school of leadership.

Format. Makarenko intensively introduced and closely followed the rules and rituals that behaviorally and through the body built in the colonists the new standards of life. Get up on time, wash, rub the floor, especially not to spit on the floor - naturally and necessarily. But "Do not stand, supporting the wall - stand exactly" and "Do not push" - the thing is no longer obvious, but it is such trifles that produce the inner core of personality. The colonists quickly became accustomed to military order, flags, horns and walking formation. When all go in line, a step is being built (and this is important), and in the team everyone is adjusted to each.

"I believe that children should not push each other, they should move expediently." "No pointless movements." And I told my communards: you want to run, you can run there, you can run around here." "Kindly behave yourself here." Generally, education of restraint, inhibition of movements First of all. (from "Communist Education and Behavior").

Makarenko was never a humanist, he was ready to work hard, for men, valued order and discipline, including army orders.

At the sight of his children’s detachments walking in step with the hills and drums, the teachers were horrified in their eyes. The methodology worked tremendously effectively, but the teachers claimed: "The methods are not those!"

From the memoirs of G.K. Kalabalina: "In the evening the attendant reports: the day passed safely." The director instructs the pupil, he responds to him: "Yes!" The examiner asks everything: some kind of militarized community!" As a result of these numerous inspections, the verdict of the highest authority is passed: "Kalabalin from the post of director of the orphanage is free to continue to prohibit him from holding positions related to working with children!"

After the death of Semyon Kalabalin, the favourite student of A.S. Makarenko, who created several successful communes in his system, the Makarenko communes in Russia disappeared. In one form or another, the Makarenko system continues to operate, but at least two circumstances hamper the implementation of its system both in Russia and abroad. First: the system of Makarenko suggests that children can and should work, and at present child labour is prohibited. Second: the Makarenko system - allows hard, male means of influence that are not acceptable for modern humanistic pedagogy.

Nevertheless, the approach of Makarenko in our day is realized, strangely enough, in business, namely in the most advanced companies. Linking the incomes of employees with the total profit of the enterprise, educating new employees and introducing them to the corporate culture through the core of the team, self-management in the creative teams and control of the format is the golden fund of modern business.

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