Personality - one of the central themes of modern psychology, the concept of "personality" and "personal" has its own history and is understood in different ways.
Personality does not include the characteristics of a person who are genotypically or physiologically conditioned, in no way depend on life in society. Personality does not include psychological qualities of a person, characterizing his cognitive processes or individual style of activity, except for those that are manifested in relations to people, in society. "Personal" features are social features, rather deep, which speak more about the direction of human life and characterize a person as the author of his life.
Personality traits (personality traits, personal traits) are features and characteristics of a person describing its internal (and more precisely - deep) features. Personality traits - this is what you need to know about the peculiarities of his behavior, communication and response to certain situations, not specifically now, but with long-term contacts with a person.
The concept of personality has three different understandings: the broadest, medium and narrowest understanding.
Personality in the broadest sense is that which internally distinguishes one person from another, a list of all its psychological properties, it is an individuality. In this concept of "personality" include the characteristics of man, which are more or less stable and indicate the individuality of a person, determining its meaningful actions for people. Usually this is the direction of his aspirations, the uniqueness of experience, the development of abilities, the characteristics of character and temperament - everything that is traditionally included in the structure of the personality. This is the uniqueness of the psycho-physiological structure of a person: his type of temperament, physical and mental characteristics, intellect, features of the world outlook, life experience and inclinations.
Immersed in himself, the eternally sleepy pessimist melancholy differs, as a person, from a vigorous and sociable optimist sanguine.
With this understanding, a person has a person, and any animal, because every animal has its own characteristics. Naturally, with this understanding, each person is a person, insofar as he has a psyche and is able to control himself. With this approach, it is not customary to say that someone is more "person", and someone - in less.
Personality in the intermediate, average understanding is a social subject, a social individual, a totality of social and personal roles.
The definition of personality as a collection of social and personal roles belongs to J. Mead. According to A. Adler, personality begins with a social feeling. Being in a society is always not easy, but the one who solves this problem successfully, that person. James has this "social self," I am for others. The social self is the subject of interaction and communication with other people. The subject of interaction and communication with other people in typical situations, at the level of social habits. Social subject - "I" in Freud, "Adult" according to Bern.
Social habits - the social order adopted in a given society. Individual habits - a reserve for social. When they are seen and claimed, they will be included in the social list. Initiative, business acumen - was previously punishable, and later became respected, became part of the "social I". Anyone who is initiative is considered a socially richer person than a person without initiative.
Personality in the narrowest sense is a cultural subject, a self. It is a man who builds and controls his life, a person as a responsible subject of will expression.
Such an understanding of the personality is close to the following authors: K. Jung, A.N. Leontiev (see →), psychologists of existential direction, N.I. Kozlov (see →). According to James, this is the "spiritual self," or the source of personal activity. With this understanding, the child at birth is not a person, but can become it. Or maybe not.
Personality in basic psychological theories
Every psychological approach or direction has its own, different from the others, personality theory. In William s theory, personality is described through a triad of physical, social and spiritual personality, in behaviorism (J. Watson) this is the set of behavioral responses inherent in this person, in psychoanalysis (Z. Freud) - the eternal struggle between Id and Super-I, in (Leontiev AN) is a hierarchy of motives, in Syntone approach (N.I. Kozlov), personality is a responsible subject of will expression and at the same time a project that can be implemented (or not) by every person. See →
Personality in the main sections of psychology
Psychology consists of sections: general and social psychology, personality psychology and family psychology, age and pathopsychology, psychotherapy and developmental psychology. Naturally, from here different views, approaches and understanding of what a person is. In general psychology, a person is most often understood to mean the widest and most basic thing that an old man and a baby have, an advanced sage and a moron that opens the way to saliva. Namely, a person means a certain kernel, integrating the beginning (sometimes called the self, the self), which connects the various mental processes of a person and informs his behavior with the necessary consistency and stability. Hence the following (behavioral) definition of a person
- is a relatively stable system of the individual’s behavior included in the social context.
If we look not phenomenologically but phenomenologically, then the personality (according to W. James) is an awareness of oneself and one’s personal existence.
Personality is examined and studied not only in psychology. His views on personality are among lawyers, sociologists, ethics and other professionals. See →