Автор: Н.И. Козлов

Psychological trauma, psychotrauma

Фильм "О чем еще говорят мужчины"

Так сложилось, что сегодня психологической травмой люди готовы оправдать почти все что угодно.
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Фильм "Амели"

Жизнь этой женщины - постоянное обращение к проблемному прошлому. Это психотравма или дурная привычка одинокой женщины, склонной к алкоголизму?
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Фильм "Управление гневом"

Такое высмеивание может оказаться причиной психотравмы. А может и не оказаться...
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Фильм "Испанский-английский"

Вы не сможете уволиться - этим вы создадите чувство вины у своей дочери. Вы ведь знаете, что такое чувство вины?
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People like to complain. If the boy is tired, he will complain that he has rubbed his foot. If the girl does not want to do the lessons, she will tell about the nasty classmates who have horribly offended her. If today we do not have the mood to solve the problems that confront us, it is a great temptation to get away from their decision, explaining our unwillingness to strain ourselves by the difficult circumstances of the past, who inflicted non-healing wounds to you. Which are now called psychological trauma.

I do not want to say that there are no psychological traumas at all. I want to say that if you can write anything down on them instantly, a long queue of volunteers is built, and psycho traumas are written on the fly. And then figure out where the hard truth is, and where the cheap slyness is very difficult.

Nevertheless, let’s try to understand!


The reader writes: "My friend (she is already 40 years old) is afraid to be alone in the dark, she understands logically that it s okay, but physiologically, the pulse, breathing, etc. Began to search for the cause... Finally she remembered that when she was punished as a child, she was locked in a pantry and turned off the light there... This is the punishment for a lifetime..."- All children like to close in the dark and be afraid: they have a pulse at this time, breathing - normal stress, the usual children’s entertainment . An adult woman has the same reaction, light stress and slight fear, which does not cause any real troubles. If we speak the language of injuries, there is a scratch, not a serious injury. Light stress is not a problem. On the other hand, if you want to do it, you can do anything from everything, including light stress. And let’s note that a specialist can remove such a fear of darkness for half an hour, a maximum of a couple of hours... Are you sure that there is something to talk about?

Another: "My sister is afraid of heights." The reason - in the first class in the library on the stepladder she took out and flipped through the books. "The stepladder swayed very strongly and it nearly fell... She was VERY frightened ". Anyone can be frightened when suddenly falls off a ladder, but if you do not make tragedy out of it, the fear goes away in a couple of minutes. As for the fear of heights, this fear is inherent in almost everyone, and for this you do not need to fall from the ladder. Yes, looking down from the roof of a 20-storey building is scary. And why do you need to approach the edge of the roof?

And also: "If we talk with girls of easy behavior, it turns out that more than half of them suffered sexual abuse in childhood." Psychological trauma? Yes. " If you talk with girls of easy virtue, it turns out that more than half of them grew up in more than problem families, observed a lot of things and looked for sexual adventures at a very early age. Consequence - not psychological trauma, but bad upbringing.


So, for the time being it is possible to state: at least in ordinary consciousness a psychotrauma is considered any circumstances capable of justifying the position of the Victim. Accordingly, if we omit it from science, the psychotrauma is an emotionally loaded everyday pseudo-conception, to which all unhappy people who happily refer to it happily refer to it. And then a psychotrauma is understood as this harm caused to the mental health of a person by unfavorable circumstances or actions of people.

And in science, psychological trauma - a hypothetical cause of inadequate behavior in a healthy psyche, associated with the events in human life that were difficult, painful events. Or - immersion in mental ill health for reasons that others perceive as respectful.

Fashion for psychotraums

Опять двойка... Наверное, мальчика нужно пожалеть: ведь это типичная психотравма!
Опять двойка... Наверное, мальчика нужно пожалеть: ведь это типичная психотравма!

At the end of the 19th century, every decent girl at least once every few years fell into a faint of emotion. Today there is no such fashion. At the beginning of the 20th century, all psychiatrists studied hysterical seizures with convulsions, today this fashion has faded into history. Today in the yard there is a new fashion, a fashion for psychotrauma.

Until the 80s, no one knew about psychotrauma and did not say, no one was afraid of a psychotrauma. With the development of crisis psychology, the concept of "psychotrauma" has become popular, the psychotrauma of children now frighten parents, clever children and smart parents are actively manipulating the threat of a possible trauma.

In our class, we already have cell phones! If you do not buy me a mobile phone, everyone will laugh at me, and I will have a psychotrauma!

Previously they said: "I came in a bad mood", "I returned angry and upset". Now they say more solidly: "Be careful, he has a psychotrauma!"

As a result of the massive impact of conversations about the dangers of psycho-trauma, many readers of psychological literature are poisoned by the thought that our whole life is caused by our childhood traumas. Our parents do play a determining role in our development, parents are responsible for our upbringing, but they are not responsible for what we are now. Today I’m already an adult, and what happens to me is already on my responsibility. Only by accepting this responsibility, a person is able to grow up.

One can agree that there are people who are predisposed to psychotraumas, who lead such a way of life and have such inclinations that psychotrauma is simply stuck on them. This is a person-child (a person who often manifests the features of a child s position in thinking, emotional reactions and behavior), even more often - the experiencing personality (the addition of the neurotic and the child-person). As for the personality of the hysterical plan, it is not easy for them to write a psychotrauma for themselves, it’s simple, but real joy.

How to prevent real and imaginary psychotrauma?

Recipes are simple: the removal of anatomical negativity, a healthy lifestyle, the development of a positive outlook, the development of adulthood, which primarily includes responsibility, habit and ability to be necessary.

Do you work with psychotrauma in psychotherapy? The question seems strange, in fact it is very important. Psychotrauma can very well be a reality (circumstances: natural disaster, mass death of people, including the death of children, and everything happens in front of the mother), and then work with a psychotrauma can be necessary and justified. However, it is not uncommon for a psychotrauma to be searched (and found) where she does not exist, to full joy as a client (he justifies his helplessness) and a psychotherapist (he received a long client). How can this be prevented? See How to deal with internal problems.


The diagnosis of "psychotrauma" should be placed only in those cases when there are no other reasonable assumptions.


Important: mental and psychological trauma is not the same thing. Mental trauma is the damage (by someone or something) of the psyche, leading to a marked disruption of its normal functioning. The person ceases to recognize loved ones, attention swims, speech with weirdness, memory gaps, thinking becomes confused ... In the case of a psychological trauma of impairments of the functions of the psyche - no, the person has the opportunity to be adequate and successfully adapt to the environment.

The main claim to the "concept" of a psychotrauma is - absence of both strict definition and any criteria for the presence or absence of a psychotrauma. In the medical literature the concept of psychotrauma is absent. There are no observed signs of psychotrauma presence. Criteria for the application of psychotrauma - no. The emergence of any strong sense of a negative plan can be interpreted as a psychotrauma inflicted by people or circumstances. Accordingly, almost any Masha can accuse any Vasya of causing her psychotrauma, if after talking with him, her mood spoiled, especially for a long time. After all, harm to her mental health - is done?

While there are no clear, observable criteria for a trauma, instead of the criteria, they often indicate signs of a psychotrauma. How thorough these signs are, let’s leave our opinion to the distinguished reader. So,

The presence of an event that is rated as a strong blow. Unexpected loss of a very dear person, rape, for the child - an unexpected divorce of parents (in the presence of very close emotional ties with both).

It seems reasonable, but objective, this criterion can not be recognized, because the significance of the event is a very subjective matter, depending on the culture of the local and specific person. Wise people are ready for anything (See Mental Insurance), and a human child is ready to make sincere tantrums because of any little things. As for children, does every child perceive rape or divorce as a blow? It turns out that no: the data say that the perception of this is very individual and depends more on those scenarios that are prompted to the child by the environment.

Obsession of memories. The average time of extinction of obsessive memories in a healthy person is three days. If a person returns to the experience again and again, after a week, a month, or even years, and all new (and past events) are now seen through the prism of the negative of the injury received - this is an important sign of a psychotrauma.

It also seems reasonable, but once again an objective criterion can not be recognized. Long-term obsession with memories can not speak of a psychotrauma, but of a person s bad habit of living with negative experiences and memories. There are many such people, people with a habit of negative perception of the world are perceived through the prism of negative without any psychotrauma, and if they do not yet know what to do, then for them it is a natural way of life, and they constantly occupy themselves with heavy memories: see a fragment from the film "Amelie".

Involvement. A person does not share himself and the situation that led to a psychotrauma, can not distance herself from her, look at what has happened happily, from the outside. Perceives everything personally, thinking about the situation a person thinks about himself and vice versa. He seemed to have merged with this situation.

At the same time - many live so constantly, they basically do not have the habit of considering the situation from the outside. Any little thing they will perceive - personally. Not the ability to separate oneself from what is happening speaks more often not of a psychotrauma, but of an insufficient level of development of the subject.

Serious difficulties in the normal mental functioning, stopping the development of personality.

Active development of personality in principle does not characterize many, passive personal growth is always dependent on external circumstances, and those who are inclined to experience for any reason (to experience so that "everything falls out of hand") is always enough.

The propensity to implement life scenarios aimed at self-destruction (propensity to suicide, alcoholism, drugs, craving for offense).

Such people in general have enough in life, and without any psychotrauma.


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