Дженнифер Макнамара, президент Европейской Ассоциации консультирования, убеждена, что консультирование категорически неправильно сводить к психотерапии. Это совсем разные вещи, причем консультирование имеет большие возможности.
Psychological counseling is categorically wrong to reduce to psychotherapy. These are different forms, and counseling has serious advantages over psychotherapeutic work. Colleagues, stop practicing psychotherapy, where this is not necessary, and master the work with healthy people, with which psychotherapy is not required, master the methodology of psychological counseling.
When a client comes to a consultation, he can offer both psychological counseling and psychotherapy: counseling that takes place in the format of psychotherapy, that is, psychotherapeutic counseling. Once again: during counseling, psychotherapy can occur. And it may not happen, as, for example, during coaching with business people.
A clear line between these types of psychological work is difficult to conduct. One thing is certain: it is incorrect to consider that counseling differs from psychotherapy in that counseling is short-term, and psychotherapy involves long-term work. This is not true. Counseling can consist of a series of consultations as needed, on the other hand, and psychotherapy can be short, one-time.
Psychological counseling is an orientation conversation between a psychologist and a reasonable client about his life situation. There are no sick people here, no one is treating anyone.
Psychological counseling is a rational procedure. On psychological counseling, the client is in the position of the Author, in the position of the sane, with a good head, active and strong, an adult who knows how to solve his problems himself, knows how to determine his goals and priorities for himself. The psychologist in this situation helps to look at the situation from new points of view, to share his (sometimes very rich) life and business experience, to show samples (variants) of solving some vital tasks for the client.
Psychotherapeutic counseling is one of the types of psychological help to people who are immersed in difficult feelings and who are in the position of Victim. The psychologist, the leading psychotherapist counseling, is often referred to as a therapist, and his contingent is clients experiencing difficulties in daily life, activity and communication. Psychotherapeutic counseling produces a systemic restoration of the client’s mental health.
Briefly: the client in disassembled feelings, work goes mainly with feelings and through feelings, work is cautious and not fast. The patient is treated with a sick soul. Treat and inspire. Persuade and treat.
It should be taken into account that male clients are closer to the format of consultation, while female clients tend to be more prone to psychotherapy. However, the sooner the consultant returns the client to the position of the Author and reorients to work in the consultation format, the better the result will be.
Just in case, be careful. It is clear that psychological counseling is not always possible or always at once, it is appropriate only while the client is in the position of the Author and for the direction of his life as a whole is responsible. It is inappropriate, obviously not enough and just past, when the psychologist gives advice to a patient who really needs psychotherapeutic help.
To you for advice came the girl in disassembled feelings. Great internal tension, so you want to cry, and the head is very difficult to include. To realism is not inclined, it is more habitual to lie or compose though to itself, though to another. Behind this is mistrust, that is, fears, and inability to tolerate at least some mental pain. Is it possible to explain something intelligently in this situation? - probably not. Here we need (at least in the beginning!) Psychotherapy: listen, bring to life, relax, reconfigure at least some kind of trust in yourself, to you and to life…
If the client does not hold the position of the Author, goes to the position of Victim, is not ready to take the necessary steps himself, but he expects a decision from the consultant, this is a more difficult situation, and work under such conditions occurs in a different format: once a suggestive impact, once a longer format of psychotherapeutic counseling.
On the other hand, if an intelligent person has come to you for advice, and you are giving him psychotherapy, this is not professional or ethical. In civilized countries for this client can sue you and you will lose your license.
When a client calls and asks for a consultation, be sure to specify whether he needs a consultation or psychotherapy. In this case, of course, the customers themselves do not know this and even usually do not understand what the question is about, but in the process of clarification, the psychologist can understand and feel that the client really needs it.
If there is little sense in the speech, a lot of emotions, experiences and conversation are more about the "state" (depression, loss of interest, «I’m really bad") - more psychotherapy is needed. If a person has even a difficult life situation, but a person is reasonable and adequate - therapy is not needed, only consultation is needed.
It is unacceptable, when instead of consulting a client begins to impose psychotherapy, treat and turn into a patient.