1. One or two-part model of the psyche? The battle of the giants.
In psychology and medicine, there are still heated discussions about the extent to which the psychological qualities and psychogenic diseases of man are socially conditioned or they are biologically determined . There are whole schools that hold opposing opinions. Some believe that this ratio is 90% - 0% in favor of ontogeny (upbringing, social factors). Adherents of this school take a person at birth in a greater degree for a "clean sheet of paper," at which the elders (parents, educators, etc.), and then the person himself, create a portrait of the person. Here, the responsibility for the quality of this portrait is naturally borne by the elders involved in proper upbringing during the children’s period. And on the mentors who help to adjust, if desired, this portrait in a more mature period.
Others believe that this ratio is 10% - 90% in favor of phylogenesis (hereditary predisposition). Adherents of this school believe that a person at the time of birth is already a ready-made psychological portrait, and education, as in photography, is simply the process of developing this portrait. They also believe that if the process of development (education) is literate, then the constructive qualities of a person will be activated, if the illiterate is destructive. Moreover, these adherents argue that if predisposition is burdened, then the process of upbringing may be generally ineffective. This often leads to popular observation - "Aspen does not produce oranges." In this case, responsibility for the content of the human psyche is also placed on the parents, as carriers of hereditary qualities, and their genus.
Authors often use imaginative models to represent their theories. Let us consider the evolution of these figurative model representations.
The most famous two-part model of the psyche (Freud, 1923 ), which is the development of Durkheim’s ideas and represents the following image - a rider on a horse (Fig.1).
With this model Freud declares two autonomous, independent of each other, independent instances of the psyche - the unconscious (horse, ID) and consciousness (rider, EGO). According to his theory, in the process of education, another third part is created - the superego (moral and moral component), the carrier of which is the same rider (consciousness). Therefore, in this model, SuperEgo does not have a separate representation. Freud, based on his vast clinical experience, came to the conclusion that a man - a puppet in the hands of some internal structure, which he called - the unconscious. He argued that man is governed by biological instincts and that consciousness is not subject to instincts.
By this he declared himself an adherent of the biological school, the school of phylogeny. Based on this model, he created a clinical method - psychoanalysis and the theory of the emergence of internal conflicts between consciousness and the unconscious, which he called - psychodynamic personality theory. This model has become widespread in the world of psychology and in the civil world - art, literature. Such a biological model was held by such prominent specialists as Lorentz (the theory of congenital aggression), Allport-Eysenck-Kettell (theory of dispositional, genetic, biological predisposition).
On the other hand, there were many opponents of this theory, which affirmed the priority of the society. They are Adler (individual theory), Jung (analytical theory and theory of egregors), Eric Erickson (ego theory), Erich Fromm (radical humanism), Horney (sociocultural), Skinner (operant learning), Maslow (humanistic), Bandura social - cognitive), Karl Rogers (client - centered, phenomenological), Beck (cognitive-behavioral), Ellis (rational-emotional), Perls (gestalt-therapeutic), etc.
One-part model uniquely spread in Russian psychology (Fig.2), which affirms the priority with knowingness, public relations, which recognized the unity and continuity of consciousness and unconsciousness, and alleged that the unconscious - a certain degree of intensity of consciousness. It seems to us that following the logic of common sense, in this model unconscious, conditioned reflex response skills are mistaken for the unconscious. It also seems to us that the products of consciousness developed in ontogeny can not be included in the structure of the unconscious, as asserted in /1, p. 43 /. In this model there is no autonomy of consciousness and the unconscious. The image of such a model as a single and continuous system is, in our view, a centaur.
This model originates from Leibniz, and was taken as the basis of Marx’s philosophical works - that the psychological qualities of a person are of a social nature and are conditioned by social relations. In his book "To the Criticism of Political Economy ( 59)" he writes: "It is not the consciousness of people that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being determines consciousness."
In our opinion, this scientific platform of Marx on the priority of the influence of society on the structure of the individual has become the basis for the creation and development of the theory of relations of Myasishchev V.N. (pathogenetic psychotherapy) and its successors - Karvasarskii B.D., Isurina G.L., Svyadoshch A.M., Aleksandrov A.A., Dobryakov I.V., Kovpak D.V. and others (personality-oriented, reconstructive psychotherapy) (Leningrad school).
On the same platform of social priority, virtually all Soviet domestic and Russian psychology (Ananiev B.G., Leontiev A.N., Vygotsky L.S., Rubinshtein S.L., Uznadze D.N., Platonov K.К. , Makarenko A.S., Lomov B.F., Asmolov A.G., Bratus B.S., Kozlov V.V. (YarSU), Kozlov N.I. ("SYNTONE»), etc.). In connection with these two models (Fig.1 and Fig.2 ), there was a sharp discussion in domestic science and medicine, moreover, the study of the biological model of Freud was once banned and politically pursued.
For the sake of justice, it should be noted that among domestic scientists Freud’s two-agency model adheres to prof. Makarov V.V. Regarding the existence in the human psyche independent of the consciousness of the authorities, he wrote: "It is known that the complexes - this is a mental institution, deprived of control by consciousness. They are split off from it and conduct a special kind of independent functioning in the unconscious part of the psyche, from where they can constantly hinder or contribute to the work of consciousness. The complex carries a certain energy charge and forms a separate, small personality. Complexes, forming an integral structure of the psyche of the individual, are relatively autonomous groups of associations that live their own lives, often not only incompatible, but even contrary to the intentions of man.
We see that the social model of the psyche still wins with a general vote with an overwhelming advantage in the world. But we must remember that science does not solve the mass opinion of the number of votes. Even the great Russian scientist Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov on this occasion said: "I put an experience higher than a thousand opinions, born only by imagination."
A new generation of domestic scientists no longer categorically assesses the role of biological and social factors (Reshetnikov M.M., Leontiev D.A., Rean A.A.) and take a cautious stance without giving preference to a particular model.
Here we see that it is extremely difficult for an ordinary psychologist or psychotherapist to dwell on any theory for his work. In the collective monograph "Psychology of the 21st Century" on this subject it is said: "At present, the field of psychology dealing with the problems of the structure of the individual is a heap of the most diverse, often contradictory, axioms, speculations, preferences, based on assumptions and only occasionally - facts."
It should be emphasized that around this issue of the nature of the structure of personality emerged an unacceptable situation in science - the isolation of schools that do not want to hear each other. Of all the listed domestic and foreign scientists, only two - Eysenck and Cattell demonstrate a natural-science approach and rely in their theories on objective scientific arguments.
Eysenck writes about this: "Authors of personality theories in which there is no empirical evidence do not want to respond reasonably to criticism, which inevitably leads to isolation of different approaches and makes it impossible (my italics) to develop a unified personality theory". Cattell, continuing this thought, says that this led to a situation where "small sprouts of accurately formulated hypotheses are easily lost in the turbulent thickets of unverifiable, but grandiose theories".
It should be reported that while scientists are arguing, at this time in modern history there is a precedent in the person of the former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, who in his state policy of helping families chose on the basis of psychological research in the 0s in the United States (the twin method ) the biological side. In his book From the Third World to the First, 2016 (p. 120), he writes: 80% of the person’s personality is laid by nature, and approximately 20% is the result of upbringing. " Such attention at the state level to the use of objective psychology has made a significant contribution to the prosperity of this state and to a leap from the third world to the first. For some reason, psychologists either ignore, ignore this fact, or simply do not know about it.
2. A clear example of the prevailing experience of the unconscious over the experience of consciousness.
In the collective monograph "Problems of psychological research. Index 1050 of theses for a doctor’s degree in 1935-2007 ", ed. prof. Antsupova A.Ya. an example is given: imagine a ball in diameter 1 meter and on it there is a pea in the size in 1 millimeter. It is this relationship that represents the scope of the experience of the existence of the unconscious in relation to the experience of the existence of consciousness.
Psyche, as a phenomenon of life, originated on Earth about 500 million years ago and the initial level of mental reflection was unconscious. The consciousness, peculiar to man, arose about 500 thousand years ago. Thus, the time of the evolution of consciousness in the process of development of the psyche is approximately 0.1% of the time of the evolution of the unconscious. From this it can be concluded that the unconscious plays a much more significant role in the daily life of a person, but rather a prevailing role than is commonly believed.
In psychotherapeutic pedagogy it is taken into consideration the rule that in moments of stress, affect, severe fatigue, alcoholic intoxication, lust, consciousness becomes extremely narrow and the control of human behavior takes on the unconscious. But at the same time, hidden aggressive, destructive reactions can manifest themselves. While this is impossible to predict.
Therefore, it is very important to learn how to determine the content of the psyche of the unconscious, which is the main task of this work.
3. Three and four-part model. Resume the search.
Returning to the discussion of models, it should be said that in addition to one and two-part models, there are three and four private models in the scientific literature. The three-part model (horse-rider-trolley) is suggested to us by the work of Academician A.Vein. on the basis of the assertion that there is conjugation between vegetative-endocrine reactions and psychoemotional states.
Pairing - from the word harness, which rigidly connects the horse and the trolley. The body of vegetative-endocrine reactions is the body, therefore it is necessary to include the third element in the model - a cart paired with a horse.
Here the question may arise: "Why does not Freud have a cart. Why did not Freud take into account in his model the physiology of the body? ". He gives the answer to this question: "I have no theoretical or therapeutic knowledge, so I have to act as if I were only psychological" (my italics). As they say, comments here are superfluous. The neglect of the bodily, psychophysiological contribution to the psyche in the Freudian model, as will be shown below, is erroneous.
The four-part model in psychology is known as Gurdjieff’s model, which he was drawn from Indian spiritual mythology. The image of this model: the carriage - the carriage (body), the horse (emotions, the unconscious), the coachman (consciousness) and the host (spirit, owner) sitting in the carriage.
The contribution of the Russian scientist George Ivanovich Gurdjieff to the world personality psychology has not yet been appreciated by modern psychologists and this assessment is waiting for its time.
The disadvantage of the Wayne model is the fragmentation of its parts, leading to the introduction of three autonomous instances, and in the Gurdjieff model, four instances.
4. Author’s model.
The author, on the basis of instrumental psychophysiological measurements and psychological testing of members of complete families (father, mother, children), created the psycho-deformational theory of personality, in which experimentally established first, the correlation of psychophysiological dysfunctions and psychological deformations, and secondly - the transmission of psychophysiological, and , and, consequently, psychological, signs by inheritance (Tabidze AA, 2010, 2015).
Thus, the results of our studies in the form of the transmission of psycho-physiological characters by inheritance confirm the biological nature of the person’s personality and, consequently, confirms the model of Freud that the structure of a person’s personality consists of two autonomous instances - consciousness and the unconscious.
As a result, we faced the task of constructing an imaginative model that would satisfy two requirements-consist of two autonomous instances (conscious and unconscious) and would contain all four parts (body, emotions, intellect, spirit). None of the above models meet these requirements.
The author suggests a four-part model (Figure 5), representing two autonomous instances and four parts. To discuss a model from two instances, it is advisable to use concepts - the essence (the unconscious) and the personality (consciousness).
The first instance is the unconscious, this physiologically rigidly connected coach + centaur + spirit = essence and second instance - consciousness, intellect, coachman, rider (personality) (Tabidze AA, 2016) .
Essence is a closed system - the spirit does not have the possibility of leaving the car, the centaur child is not able to detach from the car body body.
It should be noted that the autonomy of the essence is due to the presence of an autonomic autonomic nervous system (body, VNS), which is absent in the model of Freud and in the Myasischev model. We list three erroneous positions of the model of Freud.
The first position is the lack of a physiological content of the unconscious, there is no material carrier of the unconscious. In our model, the physiological (bodily) content of the unconscious is represented in the image of the car body with the plants on the roof. It is believed that the carrier of the unconscious is the autonomic autonomic nervous system. The fact that the body of the car is alive is indicated by the plants growing on the roof. The word "vegeto" means - to revive, grow, grow. The autonomic and central nervous systems are two autonomous systems.
The second position is the presence of only one unconscious (horse). In our model, two unconscious (the first child - the centaur and the second - the spirit), which are the consequence of the action of two basic instincts of man - the instinct of conservation of the individual (ISI) and the instinct of conservation of species (WIS). So we go on to justify the presence in the human psyche of two categories - the categories of good and evil, spiritual and egocentric.
As will be shown below, these two models of Fig.1 and Fig. 5 do not contradict each other. Simply with the dysfunctional psychophysiological state of a person, the instinct of self-preservation by means of stress hormones blocks, disables the manifestation of the spirit (the instinct of preserving the species) and the author’s model goes over to the model of Freud (more precisely, Wayne) with one instinct, the instinct of self-preservation manifested as egocentrism.
The third position is the fundamental position of the theory of Freud and Myasischev’s theory that the basis of human traumas - ontogeny (the influence of the socium in the pre- and perinatal period and the period of early childhood) is not confirmed in our model. In our model - the basis of human trauma - phylogeny (hereditary predisposition to trauma). It is not a broken hand that is broken, but the fragility of bones. This follows from our measurements demonstrating the transfer of psycho-physiological characteristics by inheritance. In the case when both parents are carriers of dysfunctional, destructive signs, they are more likely to have a child with dysfunctional traits passing in childhood into psychological addictive forms and psychogenic disorders. Those. the child is already born with a sword in his hand (see Figure 5). If parents are carriers of constructive psycho-physiological signs, then they are likely to have a child with constructive features, with a bouquet in his hand (see Fig. 5). Therefore, in our model in the picture, a child - a centaur holding a sword in one hand, and in the other - a bouquet.
The presented four-part model corresponds to the currently developed four private bio-psycho-socio-spiritual paradigm of psychotherapy.
5. Emotional intelligence and the degree of its maturity are the key to models.
The widely used Cattell test is the only one in psychological practice, characterized by its completeness (4 groups of qualities - emotional, volitional, communicative and intellectual groups) and versatility ( 6 factors).
In the process of psychological counseling, it is natural to assess the psychological portrait of the client for its conformity to a particular model. For this, we determine whether there are psychological deformations in it or not. Of the 16 factors of Cattell’s test for psychological deformations, in our opinion, the emotional group of the 4 following emotional factors - anxiety (O), tension (Q4), suspicion (L) and emotional instability (C), is in our opinion. This choice is consistent with the recommendations of works on psychodiagnostics 13,14. In work , by analogy with the concept of IQ, we introduced the concept of the degree of psycho-emotional maturity of EQ.
Now in psychology and business there is a great interest in emotional intelligence /16,17,18/. In the literature, this term can be found as an indicator of the emotional intelligence of Hall, or Gouldman, Lucin, Bar-On, Raibak, MSCEIT, etc. To distinguish this concept of EQ from the concepts of other scientific works, the designation in the author s version of EQ (Tabidze) = EQ Tab.
EQ (Tab) = C + L + O + Q4.
It is necessary to give an important remark, emphasized by Shabanov S. and A. Alyoshina in his book as "the global drama of emotional intelligence": "Without awareness of emotions, we can not control them, but it is difficult, almost impossible, to realize emotions." We suggest evaluating (or measuring) the degree of maturity of emotional intelligence in the first approximation by the sum of these 4 emotional psychological qualities EQ (tab), where each polar factor takes a value from -5 to +5.
Another novelty of the figurative model is that INTERFACE is located in front of the coachman. This is a panel with four warning lights for car failure (Cattell factors) - tension (engine overheated), anxiety (no oil), suspiciousness (darkness, electrician does not work), emotional instability (no brakes). Then the model takes a more complete form. If all the 4 red lamps (Fig. 6) and the EQ value are negative (EQ (tab) = -15) are lit (diagnosed), then we have an emotionally immature person with dysfunctional physiology, whose homeostasis is aimed only at survival, the instinct self-preservation.
This single instinct does not leave a man at the moment of danger of any choice, so this aggressive person inevitably responds to an aggressive stimulus by an aggressive reaction. The only reflex is reciprocal aggression.
The crushing power of this reflex lies in the fact that it has two kinds of unconscious hormonal reinforcement. The first is the hormonal one-time bonus from reaching the goal at the sight of the defeated rival, and the second, more powerful, hormonal reusable prize from multiple anticipation in the imagination of future superiority.
This is consistent with the fact that Freud was forced to introduce into his psychodynamic theory, in addition to EROS (the instinct for the pursuit of pleasure), also the concept of TANATOS, the instinct of striving for aggression and violence, as a specific pleasure of superiority. When confronting the interests of emotionally immature people, war is inevitable.
If green lamps are diagnosed - calmness (O), relaxation (Q4), gullibility (L), emotional stability (C) - then we have an emotionally mature person (Fig. 7) (EQ (tab) = +10), capable of exerting on aggressive stimulus non-aggressive reaction, i.e. substitute the second cheek and, thus, to extinguish a possible conflict. Such a person does not have a state of specific aggressive pleasure and for him the concept of TANATOS is absent.
The INTERFACE is an obligatory means of feedback for the coachman, showing the readiness of the functional state of the body to adequately perceive and adequately reflect the manifestations of the external world.
We know that if the emergency lights on the front panel of the car are lit, the driver will never leave the track, but take urgent measures to put the car in order. This is the kind of reaction that should be made by any person whose INTERFACE diagnoses the red factors of the Cattell test (Fig. 6). Not only psychological, but also psycho-physiological indicators can be displayed on the INTERFACE in real time.
6. Statistics of society.
Of our psychodiagnostic studies of large groups (more than 500 people), people follow the following average results. In the existing society, we are surrounded by about 20% of emotionally mature personalities, 30% of immature individuals whose EQ (tab) is less than - 10 and 50% of intermediate, unstable (EQ (tab) near zero), which under the influence of the negative influence of the media and complex household conditions are easily translated into emotionally immature. And as a result, we have about 80% of immature personalities, easily inclined to social cataclysms. Hence the natural task of psychology is to contribute to the increase of emotional competence, emotional maturity of the broad stratum of the population.
This work is a continuation of the development of ideas of prof. Vostrikov A.A. on the application of psychotherapeutic methods in pedagogy and psychology.
THE PROPOSAL. Taking into account the degree of maturity of emotional intelligence, all the psychological theories discussed above can, in our opinion, be well interpreted by the proposed figurative four-part model. Thus, this model can be proposed as the creation of a single, generalized theory of personality in psychology, psychotherapy and business.
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